Alcohol Consumption: More Risk Than Benefit

Alcohol is a small, water soluble molecule that is relatively slowly absorbed from the stomach, more rapidly absorbed from the small intestine, and freely distributed throughout the body. Alcoholic drinks are a major source of energy, for example, six pints of beer contain about 500 kcal and half a liter of whisky contains 1650 kcal. The daily energy requirement for a moderately active man is 3000 kcal and for a woman is 2200 kcal.

Alcohol is a sedative and mild anaesthetic. It is believed to activate the pleasure or reward centres in the brain by triggering release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin. Alcohol produces a sense of well being, relaxation and euphoria.

These feelings are accompanied by physiological changes such as flushing, sweating, tachycardia (rapid beating of the heart), and increase in blood pressure. The kidneys secrete more urine. Increasing consumption leads to a state of intoxication, which depends on the amount of drink and previous experience of drinking. Even at a low blood concentration of around 30mg/100ml, the risk of unintentional injury is higher than in the absence of alcohol. In a simulated driving test, for example, bus drivers with a blood alcohol concentration of 50mg/100ml thought they could drive through obstacles that were too narrow for their vehicles.

People become garrulous, elated, and aggressive at concentration above 100mg/100ml, and then may stop drinking as drowsiness supervenes. Hangover includes insomnia, nocturia (passing abnormally large quantity of urine during the night), tiredness, nausea and headache. If drinking continues, slurred speech and unsteadiness are likely at around 200mg/100ml, and loss of consciousness may result. Concentrations above 400mg/100mlcommonly are fatal as a result of ventricular fibrillation, respiratory failure or inhalation of vomit, particularly when drugs have been taken with alcohol.

 

Drinking alcohol, the most widely used psychoactive drug world wide, can be a pressure, but unless the amount taken by regular drinkers are carefully limited many of the bodies vital organs are at risk.

When some of these are damaged seriously enough by the daily intake of alcohol over a number of years, the health and even the life of the drinker is threatened, warns WHO in one of a series of information sheets on alcohol misuse.

Worldwide, the amount of alcohol related illness puts a considerable strain on national health budgets and uses up funds which are badly needed to prevent and cure other diseases. The natural outcome is likely to be a higher incidence of alcohol related problems, and a further substantial drain on scarce economic and social resources.

Regular drinking can damage any of the organs of the body except the bladder and the lungs. The brain, nerves, liver, muscles, kidney, heart, pancreas, sex organs, gullet, stomach and bowel are all at risk. After heart disease and cancer, alcoholic liver diseases (cirrhosis of the liver) is now the chief cause of death among middle aged men in many developed countries. The chances of survival depend on how soon the sickness is caught.

The brain, which when you drink is literally bathed in alcohol, is now being found by medical experts to functionless well in case of heavy drinkers. One result can be difficulty in walking properly and controlling the muscles. In addition, alcohol is of course a depressant, and drinkers who experience deep depressions often commit suicide. The digestive system is also a prime target of alcohol, and scientists have discovered it is involved in cancer of the mouth, throat and gullet. One reason why heavy drinkers die earlier than other people is high blood pressure, caused by the effect of alcohol. There is also damage to the heart muscles which prevent the heart pumping effectively.

The sex drive in men may be harmed by too much drinking. Sex hormone levels fall, leading to less interest in sex and a less ability to make love, or even impotence. Research among women has been less, but the evidence indicates that their interest also diminishes when they drink heavily.

To combat the health hazards of drinking, different approaches have been adopted including health education and motivation, encouraging people to stay within safe limits when they drink, restricting the availability of alcohol, and imposing a tax large enough to make drink a luxury.

 

Consumption And Costing

This is primary and important job for a merchandiser to know how to do fabric consumption and costing of any garments.

The most important factor is the costing which will be done by a merchandiser must commensurate with the prevailing market price, otherwise the costing will not be accepted by the buyer as such he will inclined to such factory to place order who’s costing is more realistic and at par with the prevailing market price. Now to do a reasonable garment costing a merchandiser need to equip him with certain tools and techniques to do reasonable costing.

** Head Of Costing

Example costing Head:-

Cost of fabric ˸ : USD 30.00
Cost of Accessories ˸ : USD 3.00
Cost of printing ˸ : USD 2.00
Cost of Embroidery ˸ : USD 3.5
Cost of Washing ˸ : USD 1.5
Cost of value addition work˸ : USD 3.00
Up charge for C&F order ˸ : USD 1.00
Commercial Cost ˸ : USD 0.50
Up charge for deferred L/C˸ : USD 0.10

Cost of making ˸ : USD 12.00
Charge for miscellaneous expenses ˸: USD 0.05
Total Cost (Per dozen) ˸ : USD 56.65
Buyer’s Commission ˸ : 2%
Local Commission ˸ : 5%
Final Cost ˸ : 60.91
Final Cost (Per Piece) ˸ : USD 5.08
Quoted price per pc ˸ : USD 5.10
Revised price per pc ˸ : USD 5.00
Confirmed Price per pc ˸ : USD 4.95

** Factors Affecting Consumption And Costing

• Yarn/Fiber content
• Yarn count and type (carded or combed)
• Knitting pattern
• Finishing of fabric
• Lab test requirement
• Type of dyes and chemicals to be used
• Tolerance in dye lot and shade variation
• Any restriction on use dyes and chemicals
• Packing type and assortment
• Design and pattern of garments
• Matching instruction in case Y/D and printed fabrics.

• Number of garments to be packed per poly, blister and carton
• Ply of carton and type of poly and thickness of poly.
• Details of shipping marks and carton marks.
• Details of accessories and their sources
• Details of printing and lab test requirement
• Details of embroidery
• Level of AQL
• Production lead time
• Quantity of garments
• Number of color and size in the order including lab test requirement for all colors
• Size and color ratio
• Tolerance in measurement and color shade variation.
• Inspection authority
• Any hidden losses

** Consumption For One Dozen Polo Shirt

Formula for fabrics consumption

A) Cpd (body) = Body length X Width X 2 X 12 X GSM/10000000
= 82.75 X 54.52 X 2 X 12 X 180/10000000
= 2.19

B) Cpd (Sleeve) = Length X Width X 2 X 12 X GSM/10000000
= 25.51 X 58.25 X 2 X 12 X 180/10000000
= 0.641

C) Cpd (Neck) = Length X Width X 2 X 12 X GSM/10000000
= 7.25 X 22.5 X 2 X 12 X 220/10000000
= 0.086

Total Cpd = (A+B+C)
= 2.091 + 0.641 + 0.086
= 2.819

Actual Cpd = total CPD + 12% wastage
= 2.819 +12%
= 3.16 Kg/Doz

So the fabrics consumption for a men’s Polo Shirt is in 3.16kgs/Dozen.

 

** List Of Sewing Machine & Name Of Stitch Used In Polo Shirt

List of Sewing Machine

• Over lock Machine
• Flat Lock Machine
• Plain Sewing Machine
• Buttonhole Machine
• Button Sewing Machine

Name of Stitch used in Polo Shirt:

• Over edge chain stitch (produced from over lock machine) for side seam join, arm hole join, shoulder join and collar.
• Covering chain stitch (produced from flat lock machine) for bottom hem, sleeve hem and neck join (collar join).
• Lock stitch (produced from plain sewing machine) for collar, button placket, label attachment and tape join in collar (if necessary).
• Lock stitch and chain stitch (produced from buttonhole machine) for buttonhole.
• Chain stitch (produced from buttonhole sewing machine) for button sewing.

A. Covering Chain stitch (flat lock Machine): Produced from three thread:
01. Bottom Hem = 22.5” + 22.5” = 45”
02. Sleeve Hem = 14” X 2= 28”
Total = 45+28 = 73”

Needle Thread (NT) = 1” = 3.6”
Needle Thread (NT) = 1” = 4.0”
Looped Thread (LT) = 1” = 7.0”
Total = (3.6+4+7) = 14.6= 15”

Total Thread Needed = 73” X 15” = 1095”
1 cone = 4000 meter, 1 meter = 39.37

1095” = 1095/39.37
= 27.81 meter.
A = 28 meter.

B. Over Edge Chain Stitch (Over Lock Machine): Produced from four thread or three thread:
01. Side seam = 27” X 2 = 54”
02. Arm hole = 11” + 11” = 22”
03. Collar join = 20X1” = 20”
04. Shoulder join = 8.5” X 2” = 17”
05. Button Placket = 6.5+6. 5+ = 13+2 =15”

Total = (54+22+20+17+15) = 150”
Needle Thread = 1” = 1.9”
Needle Thread = 1” = 2.0”
Looped Thread = 1”=9.7”
Looped Thread = 1”=7.0”
Total = 20.6” = 21” (Two Needle & Two looper)
Total Thread Needed = 150” X 21” = 3150”
1 Cone = 4000 meter, 1 meter = 39.37”
3150” = 3150/39.37 meter
= 80.01 meter
B = 80 meter.

C. Lock Stitch (Plain Sewing Machine): Produced from Two thread:

01. Shoulder Join Top Stitch = 8.5” X 2 = 17”
02. Twill Tape Join at Collar = 20” X 1 = 20”
03. Button Placket = 6.5” + 6.5” + 6.5” + 2” + 2” + 2” + 2” = 27.5” =28”
Total =(28+20+17)= 65”
Needle Thread (NT)= 1” = 1.5”
Bobbin Thread (BT) = 1” =1.5”

Total Thread Needed = 65” X 3” =195”
1 Cone = 4000 Meter, 1 Meter = 39.37”
195” = 195/39.37 Meter.
= 4.95 Meter
C = 5 meter.

D. Lock stitch & Chain stitch (Button Hole Machine & Button Sewing Machine):

01. Button Hole = 1” = 15” (NT) X 3 = 45”
02. Button Attaching = 1” = 10” (NT) X 3= 30”
Total = 75”
Total Thread Needed = 75”
1 Cone = 4000 Meter, 1 Meter = 39.37”
75” = 75/39.37 Meter
=1.91 Meter
D = 2 Meter.

Net sewing thread consumption
= (A+B+c+D) Meter
= (28+80+5+2)Meter
=115 Meter + Add Wastage 30%
= 115 Meter + 34.5 Meter
=149.5 Meter = 150 Meter / Pieces

Standard Rules of Polo Shirt for Net Sewing Thread Consumption = 120 Meters. (Add wastage 20% to 30%)

 

** Appliqué Consumption For Knit Garments

Say,
Appliqué length = 25 cm
Appliqué width = 15 cm
Fabric GSM = 160

Rules:
Length X width X GSM X 12/ 10000000 + Wastage

= 25 X 15 X 160 X 12/10000000 + 25%
= 0.09 KG per dozen (consumption of the appliqué)