Zipper

Types of Zipper:
1. On the Basis of Material Types
2. On the Basis of Appearance Types
On the Basis of Material Types:

Nylon Zipper/Polyester Zipper/Coil Zipper.
Plastic Zipper/vislon Zipper/Delrin Zipper.
Metal Zipper.

On The Basis of Appearance Types:

Open End Zipper (Separated): Standard Type Used in Jackets. Separates into two Pieces when unzipped.

Close End Zipper (Close Bottom): Open at One End, Closed at Bottom, Used in Pant, Trouser, Jeans.

Two Way open End (Separated) Zipper: Used in Jacket.
Two Way head to Head close End Zipper/Two Sliders and Two Bottom Stoppers.
Two Way Back to Back Close End Zipper/Two Sliders and Two Top Stoppers Zipper

Button

Button use for practical or decorative purposes.
Ligne No : 12L, 14L, 16L, 18L, 24L, 30L, 40L.
Button size= Diameter of Button = Ligne No. .
Button Use for T-shirt / polo shirt= 16L, 18L (common Use) .

Button Measurement :

1. Button set on Paper / Button
2. Marking

3.Measure by Scale of Measurement Tape
Button Requirement for One Lac Pcs T-shirt
1 pcs T-Shirt = 3 pcs Button
1 Lac Pcs polo-Shirt = 1, 00,000 x 3 Pcs Button
= 3, 00, 000 pcs Button x 10% plus
= 3, 00, 000 pcs Button / 1728 Pcs Button = 190.97 G.G. = 191 G.G.

12 pcs = 1 Dzn
12 Dzn = 1 Gross = 144 pcs
12 Gross = 12 x 144 = 1728 pcs
12 Gross = 1 G.G.
1 G.G. = Great / Grand Gross

Freight

Sea Freight

Ocean or Sea fight is habitually charged based on volumes to how a lot per CBM (cubic meter), extremely rarely by weight as “density cargo” In detail ANERA (Asia North America eastbound rate agreement) has intended the firelight tariff more based on the common value of the top of merchandise, than the ordinary weight of them, captivating into consideration that for low cost merchandise they ought to give a low freight charge in order to create it probable for the importers to purchase goods overseas. Though, for high cost merchandise, they must charge a high freight rate, because it is believed that the buyer can give to pay additional on freight.

They contain designed the freight tariff in such a way that everyone can do business and there is enough profit for the shipping lines.

LCL: Loose container Loading
FCL: Full container loading

If we vessel very heavy goods as loose cargo as the size of the shipment is very small, the shipping lines will charge by weight otherwise by volume whichever is upper.

1 CBM (100 cm X 100 cm X 100 cm)= 100kg

20’ container-228”x 84”x 94”(L-W-H), can load 27 CBM

40’ container-474”x 84” x 94” (L-W-H), can load 54 CBM

40’ high cube container-474” x 84” x 106” (L-W-H), can load 68 CBM

45’ high cube container-45’ x 8.4’x 9.5’ (L-W-H), can load 76 CBM

 

Air Freight

Not like sea freight, the airlines contain decided to charge used for the important merchandise (elevated density goods) by weight plus lightweight merchandise (low down density goods) through volume. On the other hand, while airplanes are able to take less weight than ocean liners, the means they set the standard, in the garment manufacturing, when you ship merchandise by air, you contain a 70% possibility to be charged by weight, concerning 30% possibility by volume. The followings are the connection between weight and volume as set by IATA (International air transport association).

a. Preliminary most shipping location in the Far East to the U.S. destination and Canada 7000 cubic cm = 1 kilo.

b. Form secure locations in the Far East to the United State destinations and Canada 6000 cubic cm= 1 kilo.

Consequently when you have small density goods to ship by air, in order to conclude if you must try to make the carton as small as possible to keep freight. First you check with the local air forwarding agent by asking him in the country anywhere you are, how many cubic cm be considered 1 kilo in weight. The will inform you either 7000 or 6000. This is the respond you need. Then you actually check the weight and measurements of the merchandise packed for the air shipment.

Now we have the 3 answer since follows, for outline.

1. The nation is Bangladesh and the formula is 6000 cubic cm = 1 kilo
2. The measurements of the cartons be 50cm X 60cm X 40cm
3. The gross weight of the cartons is 16 kilo for each carton.

At the present let us locate out if we must try to make the cartons smaller to keep air freight by responsibility the following computation, Multiply 50 x 60 x 40 = 120000 cubic cm. 120000 cubic cm divided by 600=20 kilo currently you know, through volume the one carton is of 2 kilo, other than by real weight the carton is of only 16 kilo. You too know the airline will charge whichever is superior; in this case, they resolve charge you intended for 20 kilo, by volume. If the air freight charge is 2.80 per kilo this carton will price you $56.00 Now, in order to save some currency, let us attempt to make the carton smaller, typically by cutting the height of the carton, Let us say we have succeed in cutting down the height by 5 cm, and see how a good deal currency we can save.

Note:

Unique size of the carton: 50 x 60 x 40 cm (=20 kilo)

At the present cut behind to 50 x 60 x 35 cm= 105,000 cubic centimeter, 105,000 / 6000 = 17.5 kilo

Now by using the fresh carton, we contain save 2.5 kilo and this carton will cost only $ 49.00 (17.5 kilo X 2.80)

Embroiderie

Should Learn To Differentiate And Assess All Types Of Embroideries:

Embroidery through application above application
* Basic embroidery through multi color
* Basic embroidery with one color
* Embroidery through lurex fiber
* Embroidery on print
* Embroidery through application
* Embroidery through sequin setting
* Embroidery through laser-cut design

Calculation Of Embroidery Charge Per Dozen

We identify embroidery stitch part is 12000 stitch but forever embroidery factory will not agree to one order on stitch if the whole management time is also long due to mixture of work with applique, patch, Wording et cetera, because such how a lot time is consumed to inspired to complete one lot will dictate the price.

12000 stitch = 1 part in embroidery
For calculating the cost of embroidery we require to recognize the following information

1) Stitch amount of the design. articulate, it is 8000

2) Charge of per unit. (Its can vary depends on the design, too advantage ability of factory). Say, it is $0.25/unit

3) At primary we will find out the part for each dozen.(stitch qty X 12 / 12000)

Rules:
= (stitch amount X 12) / 12000 X charge per part
= 8000 X 12/12000 X $0.25
= 96000/12000 X $0.25
= 8 X $0.25
= $2.000/Dozen

Factors Affecting Cost Of Embroidery

Quantity of stitch

• nature of embroidery

• Time necessitate to complete one lot

• Shade of thread

• Cutting of appliqué (Dice otherwise Laser cutter)

• Lay of embroidery

• Source plus had involves in doing embroidery

• Any restraint on selection on embroidery engine

• Any compliance condition

• Any restraint on apply of embroidery thread

 

Printing

Direct Print, Resist Print, and Discharge Print:

There are three methods of pattern dyeing and printing: Direct, Resist, and Discharge Printing.

Direct Printing:
a design is etched into a copper roller. A dye that has been thickened into a past with starch, gelatin, or synthetic polymers is applied to the etched area while the UN-etched surface is kept clean.

The color design is transferred to the cloth under pressure. Direct printing may also involve forcing the past on to the fabric through a screen.

A technique similar to stencil printing except that screen controls how much past is applied to the cloth.

Resist Printing:
a reverse printing method, a dye repelling substance is selectively applied to the cloth, which is then placed in a dye bath. This method is used, for example, to produce white polka dots on a color background.

Discharge Printing:
the whole fabric is dyed. A pattern is then printed on the fabric with a chemical that oxidizes or reduces the dye, creating a white pattern on a colored background.

** Different Types Of Printings

* Allover Print
* Screen Print
* Reactive print
* Print with plastisol dye-stuffs
* Discharge Print
* Pigment Print
* Flock print
* Foil print
* Lurex print
* Embossed Print
* Heat transfer prin
* Hi-density print
* Dip-dye print

Consumption And Costing

This is primary and important job for a merchandiser to know how to do fabric consumption and costing of any garments.

The most important factor is the costing which will be done by a merchandiser must commensurate with the prevailing market price, otherwise the costing will not be accepted by the buyer as such he will inclined to such factory to place order who’s costing is more realistic and at par with the prevailing market price. Now to do a reasonable garment costing a merchandiser need to equip him with certain tools and techniques to do reasonable costing.

** Head Of Costing

Example costing Head:-

Cost of fabric ˸ : USD 30.00
Cost of Accessories ˸ : USD 3.00
Cost of printing ˸ : USD 2.00
Cost of Embroidery ˸ : USD 3.5
Cost of Washing ˸ : USD 1.5
Cost of value addition work˸ : USD 3.00
Up charge for C&F order ˸ : USD 1.00
Commercial Cost ˸ : USD 0.50
Up charge for deferred L/C˸ : USD 0.10

Cost of making ˸ : USD 12.00
Charge for miscellaneous expenses ˸: USD 0.05
Total Cost (Per dozen) ˸ : USD 56.65
Buyer’s Commission ˸ : 2%
Local Commission ˸ : 5%
Final Cost ˸ : 60.91
Final Cost (Per Piece) ˸ : USD 5.08
Quoted price per pc ˸ : USD 5.10
Revised price per pc ˸ : USD 5.00
Confirmed Price per pc ˸ : USD 4.95

** Factors Affecting Consumption And Costing

• Yarn/Fiber content
• Yarn count and type (carded or combed)
• Knitting pattern
• Finishing of fabric
• Lab test requirement
• Type of dyes and chemicals to be used
• Tolerance in dye lot and shade variation
• Any restriction on use dyes and chemicals
• Packing type and assortment
• Design and pattern of garments
• Matching instruction in case Y/D and printed fabrics.

• Number of garments to be packed per poly, blister and carton
• Ply of carton and type of poly and thickness of poly.
• Details of shipping marks and carton marks.
• Details of accessories and their sources
• Details of printing and lab test requirement
• Details of embroidery
• Level of AQL
• Production lead time
• Quantity of garments
• Number of color and size in the order including lab test requirement for all colors
• Size and color ratio
• Tolerance in measurement and color shade variation.
• Inspection authority
• Any hidden losses

** Consumption For One Dozen Polo Shirt

Formula for fabrics consumption

A) Cpd (body) = Body length X Width X 2 X 12 X GSM/10000000
= 82.75 X 54.52 X 2 X 12 X 180/10000000
= 2.19

B) Cpd (Sleeve) = Length X Width X 2 X 12 X GSM/10000000
= 25.51 X 58.25 X 2 X 12 X 180/10000000
= 0.641

C) Cpd (Neck) = Length X Width X 2 X 12 X GSM/10000000
= 7.25 X 22.5 X 2 X 12 X 220/10000000
= 0.086

Total Cpd = (A+B+C)
= 2.091 + 0.641 + 0.086
= 2.819

Actual Cpd = total CPD + 12% wastage
= 2.819 +12%
= 3.16 Kg/Doz

So the fabrics consumption for a men’s Polo Shirt is in 3.16kgs/Dozen.

 

** List Of Sewing Machine & Name Of Stitch Used In Polo Shirt

List of Sewing Machine

• Over lock Machine
• Flat Lock Machine
• Plain Sewing Machine
• Buttonhole Machine
• Button Sewing Machine

Name of Stitch used in Polo Shirt:

• Over edge chain stitch (produced from over lock machine) for side seam join, arm hole join, shoulder join and collar.
• Covering chain stitch (produced from flat lock machine) for bottom hem, sleeve hem and neck join (collar join).
• Lock stitch (produced from plain sewing machine) for collar, button placket, label attachment and tape join in collar (if necessary).
• Lock stitch and chain stitch (produced from buttonhole machine) for buttonhole.
• Chain stitch (produced from buttonhole sewing machine) for button sewing.

A. Covering Chain stitch (flat lock Machine): Produced from three thread:
01. Bottom Hem = 22.5” + 22.5” = 45”
02. Sleeve Hem = 14” X 2= 28”
Total = 45+28 = 73”

Needle Thread (NT) = 1” = 3.6”
Needle Thread (NT) = 1” = 4.0”
Looped Thread (LT) = 1” = 7.0”
Total = (3.6+4+7) = 14.6= 15”

Total Thread Needed = 73” X 15” = 1095”
1 cone = 4000 meter, 1 meter = 39.37

1095” = 1095/39.37
= 27.81 meter.
A = 28 meter.

B. Over Edge Chain Stitch (Over Lock Machine): Produced from four thread or three thread:
01. Side seam = 27” X 2 = 54”
02. Arm hole = 11” + 11” = 22”
03. Collar join = 20X1” = 20”
04. Shoulder join = 8.5” X 2” = 17”
05. Button Placket = 6.5+6. 5+ = 13+2 =15”

Total = (54+22+20+17+15) = 150”
Needle Thread = 1” = 1.9”
Needle Thread = 1” = 2.0”
Looped Thread = 1”=9.7”
Looped Thread = 1”=7.0”
Total = 20.6” = 21” (Two Needle & Two looper)
Total Thread Needed = 150” X 21” = 3150”
1 Cone = 4000 meter, 1 meter = 39.37”
3150” = 3150/39.37 meter
= 80.01 meter
B = 80 meter.

C. Lock Stitch (Plain Sewing Machine): Produced from Two thread:

01. Shoulder Join Top Stitch = 8.5” X 2 = 17”
02. Twill Tape Join at Collar = 20” X 1 = 20”
03. Button Placket = 6.5” + 6.5” + 6.5” + 2” + 2” + 2” + 2” = 27.5” =28”
Total =(28+20+17)= 65”
Needle Thread (NT)= 1” = 1.5”
Bobbin Thread (BT) = 1” =1.5”

Total Thread Needed = 65” X 3” =195”
1 Cone = 4000 Meter, 1 Meter = 39.37”
195” = 195/39.37 Meter.
= 4.95 Meter
C = 5 meter.

D. Lock stitch & Chain stitch (Button Hole Machine & Button Sewing Machine):

01. Button Hole = 1” = 15” (NT) X 3 = 45”
02. Button Attaching = 1” = 10” (NT) X 3= 30”
Total = 75”
Total Thread Needed = 75”
1 Cone = 4000 Meter, 1 Meter = 39.37”
75” = 75/39.37 Meter
=1.91 Meter
D = 2 Meter.

Net sewing thread consumption
= (A+B+c+D) Meter
= (28+80+5+2)Meter
=115 Meter + Add Wastage 30%
= 115 Meter + 34.5 Meter
=149.5 Meter = 150 Meter / Pieces

Standard Rules of Polo Shirt for Net Sewing Thread Consumption = 120 Meters. (Add wastage 20% to 30%)

 

** Appliqué Consumption For Knit Garments

Say,
Appliqué length = 25 cm
Appliqué width = 15 cm
Fabric GSM = 160

Rules:
Length X width X GSM X 12/ 10000000 + Wastage

= 25 X 15 X 160 X 12/10000000 + 25%
= 0.09 KG per dozen (consumption of the appliqué)

Sample

In garments industry, the sample which is come from buyer and it is followed for bulk production called sample.

All sample and their implications:

• Approved sample
• Counter sample
• Proto sample

• Sealed/Red/Yellow label sample
• Size set sample
• Pr-production sample
• Trial production sample
• GFE sample
• Lab-test sample
• Flammability test sample
• Photo shoot sample
• Sales man sample
• Shipment sample
• Top of the product sample (TOP)

** Proto sample

• Fabric: – should be same content and construction but may not be of same color.

• Accessories:- Available but if similar is better.

• Embroidery:-just simulation with any embroidery work preferably same size and width but placement should be correct.

• Printing: – Simulation with same size quality/type of print but may not be of same pattern and color.

** Counter sample

Usually the duplicate sample retained by the sample room for future reference is known as counter sample but for H&M buyer the counter sample mean the sample with all actual, with approval of which no production can be preceded as such counter sample for H&M is very important and carries a different meaning all together.

• Fabric (Actual)
• Accessories ( All Actual)
• Printing ( All Actual)
• Attachment of Value Added Items (Actual)
• Washing (Actual with all effect of high/low, abrasion, hand feel, softness and drapability in acceptable quality).
• Finishing and folding (As instructed by buyer)
• Finishing accessories (As instructed by buyer)
• Packing (As instructed by buyer)

 

** Sealed Sample (red-sealed/ Yellow-sealed)

Different buyer has different types of security seal which they attach with the garments after checking. This seal is given as an approval of styling, measurement, placement of printing and embroidery and confirmation of all stitching details. This sample has to be handled with charge so that the seal is not broken.

When the buying QC will come for inspecting the garments then they will ask for sealed sample and that time if they find that the seal is tempered or broken then they may refuse to conduct the inspection as such it should be preserved with care and anybody handling this sample must understand the importance of this sample.

• Fabric (Actual)
• Accessories ( All Actual)
• Printing ( All Actual)
• Attachment of Value Added Items (Actual)
• Washing (Actual with all effect of high/low, abrasion, hand feel, softness and drapability in acceptable quality).
• Finishing and folding (As instructed by buyer)
• Finishing accessories (As instructed by buyer)
• Packing (As instructed by buyer)

 

** Size Set Sample

When initially a sample is made then usually the middle size is considered. But after confirmation of all measurement and fitting details then the garment is graded for all the size.

For similar size grading-down is carried out and for upper sizes grading-up is done. With this graded measurement all sizes of garments are made and their fitting accuracy is evaluated.

 

Without approval of complete size set cannot proceed for bulk production as such this is also very important and to be made and submitted on time to start bulk production as per schedule date.

• Fabric (Actual)
• Accessories ( All Actual)
• Printing ( All Actual)
• Attachment of Value Added Items (Actual)
• Washing (Actual with all effect of high/low, abrasion, hand feel, softness and drapability in acceptable quality).
• Finishing and folding (As instructed by buyer)
• Finishing accessories (As instructed by buyer)
• Packing (As instructed by buyer)

** Pre-production Sample

These are very also very important sample as without approval of such sample covers only the sizes whereas per-production sample may have to be all colors of fabrics also as different color may have different type’s shrinkage and cross-staining character which may have to treat with special care.

• Fabric (Actual)
• Accessories ( All Actual)
• Printing ( All Actual)
• Attachment of Value Added Items (Actual)
• Washing (Actual with all effect of high/low, abrasion, hand feel, softness and drapability in acceptable quality).
• Finishing and folding (As instructed by buyer)
• Finishing accessories (As instructed by buyer)
• Packing (As instructed by buyer)

** Production Sample

In the sample to represent the floor production as such these samples are taken from the production of the floor to assess the overall quality standard of the garments being produced.

• Fabric (Actual)
• Accessories ( All Actual)
• Printing ( All Actual)
• Attachment of Value Added Items (Actual)
• Washing (Actual with all effect of high/low, abrasion, hand feel, softness and drapability in acceptable quality).
• Finishing and folding (As instructed by buyer)
• Finishing accessories (As instructed by buyer)
• Packing (As instructed by buyer)

** Bulk Production Sample

These are the samples pulled from the bulk production to represent the bulk production. These usually cover all sizes and all colors.

• Fabric (Actual)
• Accessories ( All Actual)
• Printing ( All Actual)
• Attachment of Value Added Items (Actual)
• Washing (Actual with all effect of high/low, abrasion, hand feel, softness and drapability in acceptable quality).
• Finishing and folding (As instructed by buyer)
• Finishing accessories (As instructed by buyer)
• Packing (As instructed by buyer)

** Photo Shoot Sample

Sometimes buyer wants to do the advertisement with the garments well ahead of getting the same in the store/market and accordingly they ask for nicely stitched garments. The photo of the garments are taken putting on the same by some models and the same is displayed in the retail shop or advertisement is done on papers, magazines, brochures etc to all allure and attract the customers.

• Fabric (Actual)
• Accessories ( All Actual)
• Printing ( All Actual)
• Attachment of Value Added Items (Actual)
• Washing (Actual with all effect of high/low, abrasion, hand feel, softness and drapability in acceptable quality).
• Finishing and folding (As instructed by buyer)
• Finishing accessories (As instructed by buyer)
• Packing (As instructed by buyer)

 

** Salesman Sample

These are the samples need to supply to buyer to help him in doing campaign for marketing the item. These are displayed in the chain store/retail shop well ahead of the bulk quantity receive by the store.

• Fabric (Actual)
• Accessories ( All Actual)
• Printing ( All Actual)
• Attachment of Value Added Items (Actual)
• Washing (Actual with all effect of high/low, abrasion, hand feel, softness and drapability in acceptable quality).
• Finishing and folding (As instructed by buyer)
• Finishing accessories (As instructed by buyer)
• Packing (As instructed by buyer)

 

** Shipment Sample

There may be three instances for shipment sample with different requirements from buyer (before inspection for approval of buyer to conduct final inspection, after inspection but holding the shipment and waiting for buyers comments, after inspection sending buyer to represent the inspected and shipped garments.

• Fabric (Actual)
• Accessories ( All Actual)
• Printing ( All Actual)
• Attachment of Value Added Items (Actual)
• Washing (Actual with all effect of high/low, abrasion, hand feel, softness and drapability in acceptable quality).
• Finishing and folding (As instructed by buyer)
• Finishing accessories (As instructed by buyer)
• Packing (As instructed by buyer)

Chronologies Of Actions Of Merchandiser

• source of buyer (hosting webpage, prepare profile, visit buying house etc)

• Receive order sheet.

• Converse with planning department for availability of production space.

• Converse with Director/General Manager for capability of handling such order and probable productivity per hour.

• Investigate the fabrics content, knitting pattern, GSM and do fabrics costing.

• List out all accessories, do the utilization and costing.

• Investigate printing, embroidery, value addition work washing for costing.

• Investigate productivity per hour with machine and manpower prerequisite (may take help from production people).

• Assess cost of making per dozen.

• Confirm price from constituent power.

• Quote price to buyer.

• Discuss price with buyer.

• Confirm order with buyer.

• Prepare time and action calendar (with available production lead time)

• Organize Gantt chart (in support of T&A and incorporate all important issues and events with completion date)

• Receive size color breakdown and color standard.

• Organize lab dip, strike off, yarn dip etc and organize approval of the same.

• Receive art work and sample for printing, embroidery, value addition work, washing and get approval for the same.

• Develop all samples and submit the same to buyer for necessary approval.

• Obtain and ensure all approval as per T&A and Gantt chart to facilities production as per plan.

• Receive master Export letter of credit.

• Organize final cost approval sheet to facilitate opening of all back to back letter of credit.

• Open back to back letter of credit for yarn, accessories, printing, embroidery etc.

• Organize all fabrics and accessories and ensure in house of the same as per T&A.

• Source for printing, embroidery, value add work, washing and completer deed of agreement with them.

• Make sure inventory of all items on arrival to store to confirm the quantity, color, sizes and quality per requirement.

• Organize all as per production meeting and inspection on time.

• Organize all lab test on time.

• Make sure dispatch and approval of all samples which may affect the final inspection and shipment.

• Organize final inspection on schedule date.

• Do load calculation on ensure booking of all load carrying transport well in advance.

• Make sure space booking with sea and air freight forwarder.

• Assist commercial department to submit all documents to bank on time.

• Make sure realization of full payment as per shipped quantity and price.

Concept Of Merchandising

Merchandising:-

Merchandising is the department which mediates promotion and manufacture department. It is the method, practices, and operations used to promote and sustain certain categories of commercial movement. Its includes directing and overseeing the development of product line from begin to close. Marketing and merchandising department. A team of merchandisers and marketers work collectively under a profit controls head. Merchandisers handle the foreign buyers. The teams are made according to the buyers being handled.

Merchandiser:-

The individual who is related in merchandising is called merchandiser. The merchandiser coordinates with the design team to successfully in attendance the product or product line. He or she develops colors and qualifications, and performs market investigate to establish the most effective ways to sell and encourage the product.

This parson needs strong communication and negotiation skills and visual and analytical abilities. He or she also needs to be a creative and innovative thinker.

Responsibility of a Merchandiser

A Merchandisers key responsibility is as below:
• Product improvement
• Market and product examination
• Selling the perception
• Booking Orders
• Confirming Deliveries
• Designing and Sampling
• Costing
• Raw Monitoring
• Production follow-ups
• Payment follows
• International and outside communication,

Sampling

• Lab dips
• Accessories and trim
• Preparing purchase orders
• Advise and assisting production,
• Advise quality department about quality level.
• Mediate production and quality departments.
• Give shipping instructions and following shipping,
• Serving documentation department.
• Taking responsibility for inspections and
• Follow up the shipment.

Letter Of Credit

Letter of Credit remaining document that a consumer or importer can apply for from his bank in order to agreement that the payment fro goods will be transferred to the supplier or seller. Fundamentally, a letter of credit gives the seller reassurance that he will receive the payment for the merchandise or goods. In order for the payment to occur, the seller has to submit the bank with the required shipping documents confirming the shipment of goods within a given time frame.

 

It is often use in international trade to eliminate risks such as unfamiliarity with the foreign country, customs, or political instability.

Types of Letters of Credit (L/C):

* Revocable Letter of Credit.
* Irrevocable Letter of Credit.
* Confirmed letter of Credit.
* Confirmed And Irrevocable Letter Of Credit.
* Transferable or Divisible Letter of credit.
* Back to Back letter of credit.
* Red clause Letter of credit.
* Sight Letter of credit.
* Usance letter of credit.
* Revolving letter of credit.
* Stand-by Letter of credit.