একটি কাজের তালিকা আপনাকে ভাল ঘুম হতে সাহায্য করতে পারে।

একটি ছোট কিন্তু কৌতুহলী গবেষণায় পাওয়া যায় যে মানুষ ঘুমানোর আগে একটি কাজের তালিকা লেখার সময় দ্রুত ঘুমায়।

বেইলর বিশ্ব বিদ্যালয়ের মনোবিজ্ঞান বিভাগের স্লিপ নিওরোসাইন্স এবং কনগ্নিশন ল্যাবরোটরির পরিচালক মাইকেল কে স্ক্লিনের নেতৃত্বে ৫৭ জন শিক্ষার্থী স্বেচ্ছাসেবীদের এক গবেষণায় অংশগ্রহন করে। প্রতিটি স্বেচ্ছাসেবী ল্যাব এ এক রাত ঘুমন্ত কাটিয়েছেন।

তাদের দুটি বিষয়ে গ্রুপ করে বিভক্ত করা হয়। এক গ্রুপকে নিকট ভবিষ্যতে সম্পন্ন করার প্রয়োজন এমন একটি লিস্ট লিখতে নির্দেশ দেওয়া হয়েছিল আর অন্য গ্রুপ কে সম্প্রতি সম্পন্ন করা কাজের সম্পর্কে লিখতে বলা হয়েছে ।

পলিসমনোগ্রাফির মাধ্যম যা ইলেক্টোড ব্যবহার করে মস্তিস্কের কার্য্যকলাপ নিরীক্ষন করে জানা যায় যে, অংশগ্রহণকারীদের ঘুম এর আলাদা ফলাফল পাওয়া যায়। যারা একটি নিকট ভবিষ্যতে সম্পন্ন করার প্রয়োজন এমন একটি লিস্ট লিখেছে তারা ১০ মিনিট বেশী দ্রুত ঘুমিয়ে পড়েন।

আমরা সুস্থ তরুন প্রাপ্ত বয়স্কদের নিয়োগ করেছি, এবং তাই আমরা জানিনা যে আমাদের গবেষণায় অনিদ্রার রোগীদের একই ফল আসবে কিনা, যদিও কিছু লেখা কার্যক্রম পুর্বে এই রোগীদের উপকারের জন্য প্রস্তাব করা হয়েছে।

সুত্র ইয়াহু নিউজ।

মালেশিয়ান নিখোঁজ বিমানের সর্ব শেষ অগ্রগতি জেনে নিন ।

মার্চ ৮ ২০১৪ এ মালয়েশিয়া এয়ারলাইন্সের ফ্লাইট এম এইচ ৩৭০ কুয়ালালামপুর থেকে বেইজিং যাওয়ার পথে হটাত রাডার বন্ধ হয়ে যায়। দক্ষিন ভারত মহাসাগরের বিস্তৃত অংশে ব্যপক এবং ব্য্যবহুল অনুসন্ধানের প্রচেষ্টা সত্ত্বেও বিমান এবং এর ২৩৯ টি নাবিক এবং যাত্রি এখনো পাওয়া যায়নি ।

বিমানচালনা শিল্প বোর্ড নিজেই, আত্নিয়স্বজনদের উত্তর গুলির জন্য বেপরোয়া, কিন্তু সেই ভয়াবহ রাতের ঘটনা একটি রহস্যের মধ্যে রয়ে গিয়েছে ।

কিন্তু এখন কয়েক মাস ধরে আলচনার পর, মার্কিন যুক্তরাস্টের সমুদ্রপৃষ্ঠের অম্বেশন সংস্থা ওশেন ইনফিনিটি কিছু আশার প্রস্তাব দিচ্ছে । মালয়েশিয়ার সরকার মালয়েশিয়ায় একটি চুক্তিতে স্বাক্ষর করেছে যা এটি পারিশ্রমিকের ভিত্তিতে খোঁজার জন্য তার শক্তিশালি অনুসন্ধান প্রযুক্তিকে ব্যবহার করার অনুমতি দেবে।
ওশেন ইনফিনিটি সমুদ্রগর্ভ স্থপতি নির্মাতা প্রতিষ্ঠান , ১৭ই জানুয়ারি থেকে শুরু হওয়া গভীর সমুদ্র অনুসন্ধানের জন্য ইতিমধ্যে দক্ষিন ভারতীয় মহাসাগরের অনুসন্ধান এলাকায় যাওয়ার পথে রয়েছে ।

টেক্সাস ভিত্তিক কোম্পানি যদি এয়ারলাইন্সের সন্ধান পায় তবে ৭০ মিলিয়নের বেশী পরিমান ইউ এস ডলারে মালয়েশিয়ার সরকার এই সপ্তাহে চুক্তি নিশ্চিত করবে এবং এর মধ্যে ৯০ দিনের মধ্যে এটি করতে হবে ।
প্রথমিক অনুসন্ধান
মালয়েশিয়া, চিন ও অস্ট্রেলিয়া কর্তিক পরিচালিত একটি দির্ঘমেয়াদী বহুজাতিক অনুসন্ধানটি দক্ষিন ভারত মহাসাগরের প্রায় ৫০,০০০ বর্গ মাইল পর্যন্ত বিস্তৃত ছিল কিন্তু ২০১৭ সালের শুরুতে প্লেনটির সন্ধানে ব্যর্থ হওয়ার পর বোয়িং ৭৭৭ নাম্বারটি বাতিল করা হয় ।
ওশেন ইনফিনিটি সমুদ্রগর্ভ স্থপতি নির্মাতা প্রতিষ্ঠানের আগ্রহের একটি ক্ষেত্র হিসেবে চিনহিত প্রায় ১০,০০০ বর্গমিটারের অঞ্চলের উপর দৃষ্টি নিবন্ধ করবে । অস্ট্রেলিয়ান পরিবহন সেফটি ব্যুরো বিশ্বাস করে যে একটি উচ্চ সম্ভাবনা যে এই বিমানটি সে অঞ্চলে কোথাও অবস্থিত ।

ওশেন ইনফিনিটি তার ওয়েব সাইটে বলে যে তাদের ৬৫ টি নাবিক রয়েছে এবং আটটি স্বায়ত্তশাসিত ডুবোজাহাজের গারিগুলি পরিচালনা করছে যা আগের প্রচেষ্টাগুলোর তুলনায় অধিকতর বিস্তারিত (এইচডি ক্যমেরা এবং এরো অব সেন্সর ) এবং চার গুন বেশি দ্রুত অনুসন্ধান করতে পারে। সুনিদৃস্ট পজিশনিং এবং যোগাযোগের জন্য ছয় জাতিগোষ্ঠীর পৃস্ততল ডুবো গাড়ির সাথে কাজ করে।
এটি এমন একটি প্রকল্পে প্রথমবারের মত কোম্পানিটি নিয়েছে, কিন্তু সমুদ্রপৃস্টের ম্যপিং এবং ইমেজিং, সামুদ্রিক ভুতাত্তিক জরিপ এবং পরিবেশগত পর্যবেক্ষনের জন্য গভীর সমুদ্রের প্রযুক্তি ব্যবহার করে এটির অভিজ্ঞতা ভাল অবস্থানে রয়েছে।
সুত্র ইয়াহু নিউজ

মর্ডান স্কুল (কবিতা)

মর্ডান স্কুল
মোহাম্মদ ইকরামুল হক

কলি কালের যুগ এসেছে
আমাদের এই বাংলাদেশে
বাচ্চা কাচ্ছা দিতে হবে
মর্ডান স্কুলেতে ।
তা না হলে কি যাবে আর
এ মুখ দেখানো
পাড়া প্রতিবেশিকে ।

স্কুলেতে গিয়ে দেখি কত্ত রকম ফরম
চাঁদা আছে অনেক রকম
আরো যে কত্ত কি !!
লাগলো টাকা লক্ষাধিক
ভর্তি হল বাচ্ছা, ভাবছি এখন কি ?
এইবার বুঝি ইজ্জত আমার
হইল লেবেল হাই ,
পাড়া প্রতিবেশি কি আর
এইবার আর আমার নাগাল পায় ।

স্কুল থেকে বই দিবে, খাতাও দিবে,
আরো দিবে জুতা,
ব্যগটাও যে তারা দিবে,
আপনাকে শুধু দিতে হবে
ডাবল ডাবল টাকা।

বানাতে হবে স্কুল ড্রেস,
তাদেরই দর্জির দোকানে
আপনাকে শুধু দিতে হবে
ডাবল ডাবল দাম।

আপনার কি হইবে যে হাল
তাদের যে নেই সেই তাল
আপনাকে শুধু দিতে হবে
দাম ডাবল ডাবল ।

সব কিছুই তো তারা দিবে
আপনার কি আর চিন্তা !
পরালেখাটা শুধু আপনার ঘরে
করতে হবে সারা।

মাসে মাসে বেতন নিবে
তাও ডাবল ডাবল
এটাও নাকি হয়ে গেছে
একালের এক ফ্যশন ।

বাল্য প্রেম আর বাস্তবতা (কবিতা)

বাল্য প্রেম আর বাস্তবতা
মোহাম্মদ ইকরামুল হক

তুমি তখন সেভেনে কিংবা এইটে
আমি আর তুমি পরেছিলাম প্রেমে
অনেক কস্টে একটা গোলাপ এনে
দিতাম দুই কি তিন দিন যেত লেগে।
তোমার হাতে দিতেই তা ঝরে যেত পাপড়ি
তুমি তাই দেখে ভাবতে প্রেমের হবে কি শনি ।

ভাবতে ভাবতে তাই হল
কোত থেকে এক পাত্র এল
মস্ত বড় গুড়ের আরতদার ।
আমার কি আছে কিছু করার ।

মাত্র আমি ছাত্র, বাবার হোটেলে বিনা পয়সার কাস্টমার।
বাবায় আমায় ধমক দিলে দেই আমি মুইত্তা দিতাম
আমি আবার ঘরে তাদের সবচেয়ে বড় পোলা্‌
কেমনে কমু তোমার কথা তার সামনে দাঁড়াইয়া !!

বাজল তোমার সানাই ,
আমি যে কোথায় পালাই !
কেউ বলে তুই সেকা খাইছস, তাই খা আকিজ বিড়ি ।
কেউ বলে মজনু, তাই রাখ দাড়ি ।

তুমি যখন দেখিতেছ পোলা মাইয়ার মুখ
আমি তখন বেকার ছাত্র চিন্তায় নাই সুখ।

আমি যখন দেখিলাম মাত্র পোলার মুখ
তুমি তখন দেখিতেছ নাতি নাত্নির মুখ ।

এত বছর পড়ে
এটাই হল মনে
হায়রে বাল্য প্রেম
হায়রে বাস্তবতা !!

ছিঁড়া নোট ? কোন ভাবনা নয় !

মনে করুন আপনার ১০০ টাকার একটা ছিঁড়া নোট আপনার কাছে যেভাবেই হউক এসে গেছে এখন চালাতে পারছেন না । আপনি যেভাবে চালাতে পারেন তবে প্রথম শর্ত হল টাকা টা বৈধ (মানে জাল না) হতে হবে।

০১. বাজার করুন বা গাড়ি ভাড়া দেন সব সময় ওই ছেঁড়া টাকাটা দিতে থাকুন, ফেরত দিলে ঝগড়া না করে ফেরত নিয়ে নিন, কয়েকজন কে দিলে কেউ না কেউ নিয়ে নিবে ।

০২. বেশি ছেঁড়া হলে রাতের দিকে উপড়ের টেকনিক ব্যবহার করতে পারেন ।
তবে আমার বন্ধুর ছোটকালে এমন করতে গিয়ে বিপদে পরেছিল, আনোয়ার কাকা (মুদি দোকানি) রাত্রে ভালো দেখত না লোডশেডিং হলে আমরা সবাই তার কাছেই যেতাম ছিঁড়া টাকা নিয়ে আর উনি আমাদের সদাই দিয়ে দিতেন, ও ধরা পড়ে গেল বিদ্যুৎ চলে আসার কারনে , কাকা ছেঁড়া টাকা দেখে ফেল্ল, যার ফলে কাকা টাকা আটকে দিল ও আবার অনেক সেয়ান ও সমানে অভিশাপ দিতে থাকল (এইটাকা না দিলে দোকান ফতুর হয়ে যাবে) কাকা আর দেরি করে নাই টাকা ফিরত দিয়েদিল।
০৩. বাস কাউন্টারে বাস আসার পর তাড়াহুড়া করে কাউন্টারে ছেঁড়া টাকাটা দেন টিকেট নিয়ে নিন ও মনে রাখবেন কাউন্টার পার্সন ও আপনাকে এই সময় ছেঁড়া টাকা দিয়ে দিবে কারন আপনি ও বাসে উঠবেন , মেনে নিন ।

০৪। এবার আসি সরকারী নিয়মে ছিঁড়া টাকা চালানোর উপায়।
বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংকের তথ্যমতে, ছেঁড়া-ফাটা নোট যদি বদল যোগ্য হয়, বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংকে এসেও বদলে নেয়া যায়। অবস্থাভেদে একশ ভাগ, ৭৫ ভাগ, ৫০ ভাগ রীফান্ড করা যায়। সাধারনত ৫১ শতাংশ এর কম ছেঁড়া থাকলে নোটের পুরো মূল্যমানই প্রদান করা হয় । তবে একটি নোটের অর্ধেকো কম অংশ থাকলে তা রিফান্ড করা হয় না ।
এছাড়া দেশের সব বানিজ্যিক ব্যাংক এর যে কোন শাখায় গিয়ে বদল করে নেওয়া যায় । বাংলাদেশে ব্যাংক এর নির্দেশনায় বলা আছে, তিন-চতুর্থাংশ ছেঁড়া ও ময়লা নোটের ক্ষেত্রে জমা মুল্য সঙ্গে সঙ্গেই প্রদান করা হবে। অধিক ছেঁড়া, অত্যাধিক জীর্ন, আগুনে পোড়া, ঝলসানো এবং , তিন-চতুর্থাংশ এর কম রয়েছে – এমন নোটের বিনিময় মূল্য বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংক থেকে প্রাপ্তি সাপেক্ষে প্রদান করা হবে । এই মূল্য সংগ্রহের জন্য এসব নোট বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংক এ প্রেরনের ডাক বা কুরিয়ার মাশুল নোট জমাদানকারী থেকে আদায় হবে।

ওহ একটা কথা, দয়া করে ভুলেও ভিক্ষুকে , মসজিদে বা অন্য কোথাও ছিঁড়া টাকা দিবেন না, হিতে বিপরীত হতে পারে ।

পোস্টটি ভালো লাগলে শেয়ার করার অনুরোধ রইল ।

Delirium

Definition Of Delirium

Delirium is sudden severe confusion and rapid changes in brain function that occur with physical or mental illness.

Symptoms Of Delirium

Delirium involves a quick change between mental states (for example, from lethargy to agitation and back to lethargy).

Symptoms include:

• Changes in alertness (usually more alert in the morning, less alert at night)
• Changes in feeling (sensation) and perception
• Changes in level of consciousness or awareness
• Changes in movement (for example, may be inactive or slow moving)
• Changes in sleep patterns, drowsiness
• Confusion (disorientation) about time or place
• Decrease in short-term memory and recall
o Unable to remember events since delirium began (anterograde amnesia)
o Unable to remember past events (retrograde amnesia)
• Disrupted or wandering attention
o Inability to think or behave with purpose
o Problems concentrating
• Disorganized thinking
o Speech that doesn\’t make sense (incoherent)
o Inability to stop speech patterns or behaviors
• Emotional or personality changes
o Anger
o Anxiety
o Apathy
o Depression
o Euphoria
o Irritability
• Movements triggered by changes in the nervous system (psychomotor restlessness)

Prevention Of Delirium

Treating the conditions that cause delirium can reduce its risk.

Complications Of Delirium

• Loss of ability to function or care for self
• Loss of ability to interact
• Progression to stupor or coma
• Side effects of medications used to treat the disorder

Expectations (prognosis) Of Delirium

Acute conditions that cause delirium may occur with chronic disorders that cause dementia. Acute brain syndromes may be reversible by treating the cause.

Delirium often lasts only about 1 week, although it may take several weeks for mental function to return to normal levels. Full recovery is common.

Causes, Incidence, And Risk Factors Of Delirium

Delirium is most often caused by physical or mental illness and is usually temporary and reversible. Many disorders cause delirium, including conditions that deprive the brain of oxygen or other substances.

Causes include:

• Drug abuse
• Infections such as urinary tract infections or pneumonia (in people who already have brain damage from stroke or dementia)
• Poisons
• Fluid/electrolyte or acid/base disturbances

Patients with more severe brain injuries are more likely to get delirium from another illness.

Signs And Tests Of Delirium

The following tests may have abnormal results:

• An exam of the nervous system (neurologic examination)
• Psychologic studies
• Tests of feeling (sensation), thinking (cognitive function), and motor function

The following tests may also be done:
• Ammonia levels
• B12 level
• Blood chemistry (chem-20)
• Blood gas analysis
• Chest x-ray
• Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis
• CPK
• Drug, alcohol levels (toxicology screen)
• Electroenceophalograph (EEG)
• Glucose test
• Head CT scan
• Head MRI scan
• Liver function tests
• Mental status test
• Serum calcium
• Serum electrolytes
• Serum magnesium
• Thyroid function tests
• Thyroid stimulating hormone level
• Urinalysis

Treatment Of Delirium

The goal of treatment is to control or reverse the cause of the symptoms. Treatment depends on the condition causing delirium. Diagnosis and care should take place in a pleasant, comfortable, non-threatening, physically safe environment. The person may need to stay in the hospital for a short time.

Stopping or changing medications that worsen confusion, or that are not necessary, may improve mental function. Medications that may worsen confusion include:

• Alcohol and illegal drugs
• Analgesics
• Anticholinergics
• Central nervous system depressants
• Cimetidine
• Lidocaine

Disorders that contribute to confusion should be treated.

These may include:

• Heart failure
• Decreased oxygen (hypoxia)
• High carbon dioxide levels (hypercapnia)
• Thyroid disorders
• Anemia
• Nutritional disorders
• Infections
• Kidney failure
• Liver failure
• Psychiatric conditions (such as depression)

Treating medical and mental disorders often greatly improves mental function.

Medications may be needed to control aggressive or agitated behaviors. These are usually started at very low doses and adjusted as needed.

Medications include:
• Dopamine blockers (haloperidol, olanzapine, risperidone, clozapine)
• Mood stabilizers (fluoxetine, imipramine, citalopram)
• Sedating medications (clonazepam or diazepam)
• Serotonin-affecting drugs (trazodone, buspirone)
• Thiamine

Some people with delirium may benefit from hearing aids, glasses, or cataract surgery.

Other treatments that may be helpful:

• Behavior modification to control unacceptable or dangerous behaviors
• Reality orientation to reduce disorientation

Calling Your Health Care Provider For Delirium

Call your health care provider if there is a rapid change in mental status.

Chronic Pain

Who Is At Risk For Chronic Pain

Factors that may increase the risk of chronic pain include:

Aging. Older adults are more likely to suffer from chronic conditions such as arthritis, diabetes, shingles, and other causes of nerve problems (neuropathy). However, chronic pain is not a normal part of growing older. Smoking. Nicotine use can increase pain and decrease the effectiveness of medicines.
Health problems. These include:
Existing health conditions, such as fibromyalgia, shingles, arthritis, depression or anxiety disorders, or having a limb amputated (phantom limb pain).
Past health problems, such as joint injuries. Also, previous surgery may cause new pain or may not work to relieve pain (such as back surgery that does not relieve pain).

Overall general health condition. You may have a weakened immune system, which can lead to frequent infections or illness.
Conditions that are difficult to treat, such as nerve pain from shingles (postherpetic neuralgia).
Lifestyle, such as not eating healthy foods, not exercising regularly, smoking, or having a substance abuse or alcohol dependency problem.

Other factors that may increase your risk for developing chronic pain include injury, stress, inactivity, relationship problems, or a history of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Daily activities that may contribute to chronic pain include repetitive motions at work or at home, such as lifting, or being in awkward positions for long periods of time.

Alternative Pain Therapies of Chronic Pain 

How the Mind Controls Pain

Science is beginning to investigate and support the role of therapies such as biofeedback and meditation in pain control. The idea that the mind has power over the body may be especially useful to chronic pain patients who often find themselves without satisfactory medical treatments.
The emotional response to pain
Pain travels along two pathways from a source, such as an injury, back to your brain. One is the sensory pathway, which transmits the physical sensation. The other is the emotional pathway, which goes from the injury to the amygdala and the anterior cingulate cortex—areas of the brain that process emotion.

“You may not be aware of it, but you’re having a negative emotional reaction to chronic pain as well as a physical reaction,” says Natalia Morone, MD, assistant professor of general internal medicine at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. Mind-body treatments that involve meditation and relaxation probably affect these emotional pathways. However, Dr. Morone admits that many doctors don’t put much stock in this theory. “Anything to do with mind-body medicine around pain is going to be controversial. This is all very new.”

Research is beginning to show the connection
In a 2005 study, researchers at Stanford University in Palo Alto, Calif., used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which measures activity in different areas of the brain, to see whether subjects could learn to control a brain region involved in pain and whether that could be a tool for altering their pain perception.

Laura Tibbitts, 34, an event planner from San Francisco who severely injured her arm, shoulder and back when she was thrown off of a horse, participated in the study.

In describing her pain, she says: “My muscles and nerves feel like a bunch of snakes that are all intertwined, but then I also get a stabbing and shooting pain. So you have that horrible, achy, uncomfortableness, but then you get these jolts of pain.”

In the study, Tibbitts was asked to increase her pain and as she did, an image of a flame on a computer monitor became stronger and more vibrant. Then she was told to decrease her pain, which caused the flame to die-down. “Sometimes I would imagine that the pain was literally being scooped out from me, taken away and carried off. Other times I used water imagery, like it was flowing through me and taking it away,” says Tibbitts. After the test, she learned that she had been able to produce a 30% to 40% reduction in her overall pain.

Giving control to pain patients

For Sean Mackey, MD, director of the pain management division at Stanford University School of Medicine and one of the study’s researchers, the research revealed a striking element of empowerment. “Patients would say, ‘A-ha! For the first time I could see the pain in my brain, and I could control it. And that was a very powerful experience,” he says.

Dr. Mackey believes pain medicine is moving away from the concept of strict mind-body separation toward a more unified—and ancient-sounding—view in which “mind and body are really one.”

The bottom line for pain patients is that they may want to pursue pain-control techniques such as biofeedback, yoga, and meditation. But they also need to be on the alert for scams and beware of claims made by therapists seeking to exploit their desperation. Before turning to one of these therapies, it’s best to thoroughly research the practitioner you choose.

What To Keep In Your Pain Diary

1. Your pain level.

Keep track of: where your pain falls on a scale of 0 to 10. If 0 is no pain at all and 10 is the worst pain you can imagine, decide where your pain falls. Mark down what number you hit during different parts of the day. This will help your doctor look for patterns that might help him or her better target your treatment. For instance, if your pain tends to spike in the evening and you take your medication in the morning, your medication may not be lasting long enough and you may need to take smaller doses more often. 2. What medication you took and its effect.

Keep track of: how much medication you are taking, when you take it, whether it provides you any relief, and if you experience any side effects. This information will give your doctor an understanding of the magnitude of your pain and help him or her decide whether you need to try a new medication or switch from over-the-counter drugs to prescription meds. Finally, your doctor can make sure that you are not combining medications that could have a bad interaction.
3. Other treatments you tried.

Keep track of: any non-drug therapies that you use to control the pain and whether they help.

Did your back feel better or worse after your yoga class? Were you headache-free on a day you visited the acupuncturist? Did taking five minutes at the end of your day to relax and release tension help you sleep with a little less pain? This kind of information will help you see what really lessens your pain and help your doctor get closer to the source of it.

4. Anything else that relieved pain or made it worse.

Keep track of: any big changes that seemed to impact your pain. Did driving for four hours to your in-laws cause your sciatica to flare? When you were in meetings all day and not at your desk, did your lower back feel better than normal? Did those two glasses of red wine precede one of your worst migraines ever? Noticing the small changes in your daily routine that have big impacts on your pain can help you make choices to keep the pain in check.

5. Moments you are grateful for.

Keep track of: pain-free moments too. Keeping a pain diary can help you and your doctor create a plan to reduce pain and make you more comfortable. But focusing too much on your pain can inadvertently worsen it. Try to set aside a specific time a few times a week, so that you don’t spend every day obsessing about it. And remember to mark down a few good moments to remind you to stay in touch with all the other parts of your life too.

 

Cervical Cancer

What Is Cervical Cancer?

Cervical cancer occurs when abnormal cells on the cervix grow out of control. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. Cervical cancer can often be cured when it’s found early. It is usually found at a very early stage through a Pap test.

What Are The Symptoms of Cervical Cancer ?

Symptoms of acne include whiteheads, blackheads, and pimples. These can occur on the face, neck, shoulders, back, or chest.

Pimples that are large and deep are called cystic lesions. These can be painful if they get infected. They also can scar the skin.

What Causes Cervical Cancer?

Cervical cancer is caused by severe abnormal changes in the cells of the cervix. Most precancerous or cancerous cell changes occur in the cervix at the transformation zone because these cells normally undergo constant change. During this natural process of change, some cervical cells can become abnormal if you are infected with high-risk types of HPV.

Other factors that may play a role in causing cervical cancer include:

1 One study shows that your risk of cervical cell changes may also increase if you are around someone else while they smoke (secondhand smoke).2 Cervical cell changes are more likely to go away on their own in women who don’t smoke.

Having an impaired immune system, such as from having human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Using birth control pills for more than 5 years. This may be related to infection with HPV,

Regular Pap test screening is the single most important tool to identify cervical cell changes early before they progress to cancer.

What Increases Your Risk ?

The most common cause of cervical cancer is a persistent infection with a high-risk type of human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV infection of the cervix is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). A past HPV infection in you or your partner can cause abnormal cervical cell changes years later since the virus may remain in the body for life. HPV infection usually does not cause symptoms and often goes away without causing any problems, so you or your partner may not be aware of a current or past HPV infection.

Other risk factors that may increase your risk for cervical cancer include:
Having an impaired immune system.

For example, women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seem to:

Have higher rates of HPV infection.
Be more likely to develop cervical cell changes from HPV.
Be more likely to quickly develop cervical cancer from those cell changes.
Using birth control pills for more than 5 years. This may be related to infection with HPV.
Exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) before birth (prenatal exposure), though this is rare.
Smoking or a history of smoking, and possibly exposure to secondhand smoke.
Pregnant women have the same risk of developing cervical cancer as nonpregnant women.

What To Think About Cervical Cancer?

Most chemotherapy will cause some side effects.

Chemotherapy may be given after surgery to try to kill any cancer cells that may remain, which is called adjuvant therapy.

Studies show that chemotherapy given at the same time as radiation treatment (chemoradiation) improves survival rates in stages IIB, IIIA, IIIB and IVA cervical cancer without significantly increasing the side effects of either treatment. Chemoradiation may also improve survival rates in stages IB and IIA for women with large tumors.6, 1 Compared with radiation alone, chemoradiation improves survival.7 It is usually used as the primary therapy or after a hysterectomy.

Cisplatin is the medicine most often used in chemoradiation for cervical cancer.

Can Cervical Cancer Be Prevented?

The Pap test is the best way to find cervical cell changes that can lead to cervical cancer. Regular Pap tests almost always show these cell changes before they turn into cancer. It is important to follow up with your doctor after any abnormal Pap test result to treat abnormal cell changes. This may help prevent cervical cancer.

A new vaccine called Gardasil protects against four types of HPV, which together cause most cases of cervical cancer and genital warts.

You get three shots over 6 months. The vaccine is recommended for girls 11 to 12 years old. It is also recommended for females 13 to 26 years old who did not get the vaccine when they were younger.

The virus that causes cervical cancer is spread through sexual contact. The best way to avoid getting a sexually transmitted disease is to not have sex. If you do have sex, practice safer sex, such as using condoms and limiting the number of sex partners you have.

Early Detection Of Cervical Cancer

As part of your routine gynecological exam, you should have a Pap test. A Pap test is used to identify abnormal cell changes of your cervix and to screen for cervical cancer. The Pap test is the most effective screening test to prevent the development of cervical cancer.

Abnormal cervical cells on a Pap test are classified according to their degree of abnormality. Treatment decisions are guided by the kind of changes seen in the cells. In North America, abnormal cells are classified using the Bethesda system (TBS). The Bethesda system or other classification systems are used in other parts of the world.

Exams And Tests Of Cervical Cancer

The Pap test is a routine screening test used to identify abnormal cell changes of the cervix and to screen for cervical cancer. Regular Pap test screening is the single most important tool in identifying and treating cervical cell changes before they progress to cervical cancer. If cervical cancer is suspected, your health professional will take a medical history and perform a physical exam, including a pelvic exam and a Pap test. Several follow-up tests may be needed for evaluation and treatment.

Tests to confirm a diagnosis of cervical cancer include:

A colposcopy and cervical biopsy, to find out whether and where cancer cells are on the surface of the cervix.
An endocervical biopsy (or curettage), to find out whether cancer cells are in the cervical canal.
A cone biopsy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). These tests are sometimes recommended to remove cervical tissue for examination under a microscope.
If you are pregnant, a colposcopy and cervical biopsy can be done to confirm cervical cancer.

Tests to determine the extent (stage) of cervical cancer include:
A cone biopsy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP).

These tests are sometimes recommended to determine the spread of cancer in cervical tissue.
A cystoscopy, to look at the interior lining of the bladder and the urethra to determine whether the cancer has spread to the urinary system.
A proctoscopy, to look at the lower part of the large intestine (colon) to determine whether the cancer has metastasized.
An intravenous pyelogram, to see whether there is any blockage of a kidney.
A chest X-ray, to check for cancer cells that have spread from the cervix.

Tests to guide treatment decisions include:

A complete blood count (CBC), to check for anemia and other abnormal blood values.
A chemistry screen, to find out how the liver and kidney are working.
A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis, to determine which treatment choice is needed depending on the spread of cancer in the abdomen and pelvis.

A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen and pelvis. This test can also help determine which treatment will be recommended depending on the spread of cancer in the abdomen and pelvis.
A positron emission tomography (PET). This test is sometimes used to evaluate which organs the cancer has spread to.

How Is Cervical Cancer Diagnosed?

As part of your regular pelvic exam, you should have a Pap test. During a Pap test the doctor scrapes a small sample of cells from the surface of the cervix to look for cell changes.

If a Pap test shows abnormal cell changes, your doctor may do other tests to look for precancerous or cancer cells on your cervix.

Your doctor may also do a Pap test and take a sample of tissue (biopsy) if you have symptoms of cervical cancer, such as bleeding after sex.

Home Treatment Of Cervical Cancer

During medical treatment for any stage of cervical cancer, you can use home treatment to help manage the side effects of cervical cancer or cancer treatment. Home treatment may be all that is needed to manage the following common problems. If your doctor has given you instructions or medicines to treat these symptoms, be sure to follow them. In general, healthy habits such as eating a balanced diet and getting enough sleep and exercise can help control your symptoms.

Home treatment for:

Nausea or vomiting includes watching for and treating early signs of dehydration, such as a dry mouth, sticky saliva, and reduced urine output with dark yellow urine. Older adults can quickly become dehydrated from vomiting. Nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy usually require medical treatment. Your doctor may also prescribe medicines to control nausea and vomiting.
Diarrhea includes resting your stomach and being alert for signs of dehydration. Check with your doctor before using any nonprescription medicines for your diarrhea.

Constipation includes making sure that you drink enough fluids and include fruits, vegetables, and fiber in your diet each day. Do not use a laxative without consulting your doctor.
Other issues that may arise include:

Sleep problems. If you find you have trouble sleeping, some tips for managing sleep problems may be helpful, such as having a regular bedtime, getting some exercise during the day, and avoiding naps.
Fatigue. If you feel as though you do not have any energy and tire easily, try some measures to manage fatigue, such as getting extra rest, eating a balanced diet, and reducing your stress.

Urinary problems, which can be caused by both cervical cancer and its treatment. It may help to eliminate caffeinated drinks from your diet and to establish a schedule of urinating every 3 to 4 hours, regardless of whether you feel the need.
Hair loss. Hair loss may be unavoidable, but using mild shampoos and avoiding damaging hair products will reduce irritation of your scalp.
Many women with cervical cancer face emotional issues as a result of their disease or its treatment.

Finding out that you have cancer and undergoing treatment is stressful. Managing stress may include expressing your feelings to others. Learning relaxation techniques may also be helpful. Relaxation techniques, such as meditation, and support groups may be helpful.

Your feelings about your body and your sexuality may change following treatment for cancer. It may help to talk openly about your feelings with your partner and to discuss your concerns with your doctor. Your doctor may be able to refer you to organizations that can offer additional support and information.

Not all forms of cancer or cancer treatment cause pain. If pain occurs, many options are available to relieve it. If your doctor has given you instructions or medicines to treat pain, be sure to follow them. Home treatment for pain such as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) or an alternative therapy like biofeedback may improve your physical and mental well-being. Be sure to discuss any home treatment you use for pain with your doctor.

Some women with advanced-stage disease may choose not to have treatment because the time, costs, and side effects of treatment may be greater than the benefits. Making the decision about when to stop medical treatment aimed at prolonging life and shift the focus to end-of-life care can be difficult.

Medication Choices

The most common chemotherapy medicines used for initial treatment or with radiation treatment in stage IIA, IIB, IIIA, IIIB, and IVA include:
Cisplatin.
Fluorouracil (5-FU).

For advanced stage (stage IVB) cervical cancer or recurrent cervical cancer, the most common chemotherapy medicines used are:
Mitomycin.
Paclitaxel.
Ifosfamide.
Topotecan has been approved to use with cisplatin for advanced cervical cancer. These drugs may be used when surgery or radiation cannot be done or are not likely to work. They can also be used for cervical cancer that has returned or spread to other organs.

What To Think About Surgery Of Cervical Cancer?

If surgery is part of your treatment, you also may be given radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or combination chemoradiation. These treatments may be given before or after surgery to try to destroy any cancer cells that may remain. Radiation, chemotherapy, or chemoradiation given before a surgery to help control or reduce the size of the tumor is called neoadjuvant therapy.

Using these therapies after a surgery when only microscopic areas of cancer may still be present is called adjuvant therapy.

Compared with radiation alone, chemoradiation improves survival if it is used either before or after a hysterectomy.
Side effects from surgery can include difficulty with urination or problems with bowel habits, such as constipation or diarrhea. Your ability to have or enjoy sexual intercourse may also be affected.

Surgery Choices Of Cervical Cancer

Surgery for very early stages of cervical cancer that preserves your ability to have children includes:
A cone biopsy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), which removes a wedge of cervical tissue that contains the cancer.
Radical trachelectomy and laparoscopy for pelvic lymph node dissection, which removes the cervix and area lymph nodes, but not the uterus. Radical trachelectomy is not commonly used.

Surgery for most stages of cervical cancer does not preserve your ability to have children. Surgeries include:
Hysterectomy with or without removal of the ovaries, to remove the cervix and related organs where recurrence would be most likely to occur.

Modified radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection. A radical hysterectomy usually includes removal of part of the vagina, the uterus, the ovaries, and the fallopian tubes. This removes the most likely sites of cancer and may reduce the risk of recurrence.

Other Treatment Choices

In addition to conventional medical treatment for cervical cancer, you may wish to try complementary therapies, such as:
Acupuncture.
Herbs.
Biofeedback.
Meditation.
Yoga.
Guided imagery.
Vitamins and nutritional supplements.

Complementary therapies are not a substitute for the standard treatment recommended for cervical cancer. Before you try any of these therapies, discuss their possible benefits and side effects with your doctor. Let him or her know if you are already using any such therapies. For more information, see the topic Complementary Medicine.

Treatment Overview

Cervical cancer detected in its early stages can be cured with treatment and close follow-up. Treatment choices for cervical cancer may include one or more of the following therapies:

Surgery to remove the cancer
Radiation therapy to treat the cancer itself or other organs affected by the cancer
Chemotherapy to help make the cancer more sensitive to radiation therapy and to treat cancer that has spread (metastasized)
Your quality of life becomes a critical issue when considering treatment options. Be sure to discuss your personal preferences with your oncologist when he or she recommends treatment.
Initial treatment
The choice of treatment and the long-term outcome (prognosis) of cervical cancer depends on the type and stage of cancer. Your age, overall health, quality of life, and desire to be able to have children must also be considered. Treatment choices for cervical cancer may be a single therapy or a combination of therapies, such as:
Cone biopsy to remove the cancer.
Simple hysterectomy to remove the uterus and cervix.
Modified radical hysterectomy and lymph node dissection to remove the cancer.
Radiation therapy, which uses high-dose X-rays or implants in the vaginal cavity to kill cancer cells.
Chemotherapy, which uses medicines to kill cancer cells.
Radical trachelectomy to remove the cervix and the pelvic lymph nodes (lymph node dissection). But the uterus is left in place. This treatment is done less often.

Chemotherapy may be given at the same time as radiation therapy (chemo radiation). Studies show that chemotherapy given at the same time as radiation treatment (chemo radiation) improves survival rates in stages IIB, IIIA, IIIB and IVA cervical cancer without significantly increasing the side effects of either treatment. Chemo radiation may also improve survival rates in stages IB and IIA for women with large tumors. Compared with radiation alone, chemo radiation improves survival.7 It is usually used as the primary therapy or after a hysterectomy.

Microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma (stage IA1) with minimal invasion into deeper cell layers is the most treatable stage with the highest survival rates. This stage is treated with a cone biopsy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) or simple hysterectomy; 5-year survival rates are close to 100%.

Most treatments for cervical cancer cause side effects. Side effects may differ, depending on the type of treatment used and your age and overall health. Your doctor can talk to you about your treatment choices and the side effects associated with each treatment.
Side effects of chemotherapy may include loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mouth sores, or hair loss.
Side effects of radiation therapy may include fatigue, skin irritation, or changes in your bowel or urinary habits.
Side effects of surgery depend on the surgery used to treat the stage of your cancer.
Home treatment measures may help relieve some common side effects of cancer treatment. For more information, see the Home Treatment section of this topic.

If you have recently been diagnosed with cervical cancer, you may experience a wide variety of emotions in reaction to your diagnosis. Most women will feel some denial, anger, and grief. There is no “normal” or “right” way to react to a diagnosis of cancer. You can take steps, though, to manage your emotional reactions to learning that you have cervical cancer. Some women find that talking with family and friends is comforting, while others may need to spend time alone to understand their feelings about their disease.

If your emotions are interfering with your ability to make decisions about your health and to move forward with your life, it is important to talk with your doctor. Your cancer treatment center may offer counseling services. You may also contact your local chapter of the American Cancer Society to help you find a support group. Talking with other women who have had similar feelings after a diagnosis such as yours can help you accept and deal with your disease.
Treatment for pregnant women
Recommended treatments are the same for pregnant women as for nonpregnant women. Treatment for early stage IA cervical cancer may be delayed until after delivery if the pregnancy is in the third trimester. A vaginal delivery may be possible.

For all stages of cervical cancer, treatment will be managed by a team of doctors specializing in cancer and high-risk pregnancies. The baby does not appear to be affected by cervical cancer, but treatment for the cancer may cause problems such as an early delivery or even the loss of the baby.

10 Treatment will consider the recommendations for the specific stage of cancer, the development of the baby, and the mother’s preferences.

What to think about during initial treatment

Depending on the extent (stage) of your cancer, surgery may be combined with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Radiation or chemotherapy given after a surgery is called adjuvant therapy.

Some women with cervical cancer may be interested in participating in research studies called clinical trials. Clinical trials are designed to find better ways to treat cancer patients and are based on the most up-to-date information. Women who do not want standard treatments or are not cured using standard treatments may want to participate in clinical trials. These are ongoing in most parts of the United States and in some other countries for all stages of cervical cancer.

Cervical cancer progresses more rapidly, has higher recurrence rates, and has a poorer prognosis in women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
For more information about specific cervical cancer treatments, see the topics:
Cervical Cancer—Health Professional Information [NCI PDQ].
Cervical Cancer—Patient Information [NCI PDQ].

Ongoing treatment
After initial treatment for cervical cancer, it is important to receive follow-up care. Your emotional reactions may continue throughout the course of your treatment depending on your prognosis, the treatment methods used, and your quality-of-life decisions.

Your oncologist or gynecological oncologist will schedule regular checkups that will include:
A pelvic exam and Pap test every 3 months for the first 2 or 3 years.
After the first 2 or 3 years, a pelvic exam and Pap test every 6 months until 5 years after treatment.
Follow-up tests that may be recommended by your oncologist include an abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) scan to monitor whether cancer has spread to other organs in the abdomen or pelvis.
If respiratory symptoms are present, a chest X-ray may be done to determine whether cancer has spread to the lungs.

Treatment if the condition gets worse
Cervical cancer can return after treatment. About 35% of women with cervical cancer will have persistent or recurrent disease.11 The chance that your cancer will return depends on the stage of the initial cancer: cancer found early is less likely to come back than cancer found at a later stage. If cancer returns after treatment, it is usually within 2 years of the first diagnosis.8 Your long-term outcome (prognosis) for recurrent cervical cancer depends greatly on how much the cancer has spread when the recurrence is diagnosed.

Overall, fewer than 5% of women with recurrent cancer survive 5 more years even with additional treatment.
Women who have had a radical hysterectomy and develop a recurrence that has not spread outside the pelvis have a 5-year survival rate of 30% to 40% when treated with radiation therapy. Chemotherapy may also be recommended.
Women who develop a local recurrence that has not spread outside the pelvis may be treated with an extensive surgery called pelvic exenteration, which removes all the pelvic organs and surrounding tissue to eliminate the risk of additional recurrences.
The goal of treatment of advanced-stage cervical cancer that has spread outside the pelvis is to control symptoms, reduce complications, and increase comfort (palliative care). It is not intended to cure the disease. Palliative care may include:
Radiation therapy.
Chemotherapy medicines.
Medicines for symptoms such as nausea or pain.
Complementary therapies
In addition to conventional medical treatment, you may wish to try complementary therapies, such as:
Acupuncture.
Herbs.
Biofeedback.
Meditation.
Yoga.
Visualization.
Vitamins and nutritional supplements.
Complementary therapies are not a substitute for the standard treatment recommended for cervical cancer. Before you try any of these therapies, discuss their possible benefits and side effects with your doctor. Let him or her know if you are already using any such therapies. For more information, see the topic Complementary Medicine.

End-of-life issues
Some women with advanced-stage disease that is not curable may choose not to have cancer treatment because the time, costs, and side effects of treatment may be greater than the benefits. Making the decision about when to stop cancer treatment aimed at prolonging life and shift the focus to best supportive care can be difficult.

Asthma

What Is Asthma?

Asthma causes swelling and inflammation in the airways that lead to your lungs. When asthma flares up, the airways tighten and become narrower. This keeps the air from passing through easily and makes it hard for you to breathe. These flare-ups are also called asthma attacks or exacerbations. Asthma affects people in different ways.

Some people only have asthma attacks during allergy season, or when they breathe in cold air, or when they exercise. Others have many bad attacks that send them to the doctor often. Even if you have few asthma attacks, you still need to treat your asthma. The swelling and inflammation in your airways can lead to permanent changes in your airways and harm your lungs. Many people with asthma live active, full lives. Even though asthma is a lifelong disease, treatment can control it and keep you healthy.

Asthma: How Is It Treated?

There are two parts to treating asthma. The goals are to: Control asthma over the long term. To do this, use a daily asthma treatment plan. This is a written plan that tells you which medicine to take. It also helps you track your symptoms and know how well the treatment is working. Many people take controller medicine—usually an inhaled corticosteroid—every day. Taking controller medicine every day helps to reduce the swelling of the airways and prevent attacks. Your doctor will show you how to use your inhaler correctly.

This is very important so you get the right amount of medicine to help you breathe better. Treat asthma attacks when they occur. Use an asthma action plan, which tells you what to do when you have an asthma attack. It helps you identify triggers that can cause your attacks. You use rescue medicine, such as albuterol, during an attack. If you need to use the rescue inhaler more often than usual, talk to your doctor. This is a sign that your asthma is not controlled and can cause problems. Asthma attacks can be life-threatening, but you may be able to prevent them if you follow a plan. Your doctor can teach you the skills you need to use your asthma treatment and action plans.

How Can You Prevent Asthma Attacks?

You can prevent some asthma attacks by avoiding those things that cause them. These are called triggers. A trigger can be: Irritants in the air, such as cigarette smoke or other air pollution. Don’t smoke, and try to avoid being around others when they smoke. Things you are allergic to, such as pet dander, dust mites, cockroaches, or pollen. When you can, avoid those things you are allergic to. It may also help to take certain kinds of allergy medicine. Exercise.

Ask your doctor about using an inhaler before you exercise if this is a trigger for you. Other things like dry, cold air; an infection; or some medicines, such as aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Try not to exercise outside when it is cold and dry. Talk to your doctor about vaccines to prevent some infections, and ask about what medicines you should avoid. Sometimes you don’t know what triggers an asthma attack. This is why it is important to have an asthma action plan that tells you what to do during an attack.

How Is Asthma Diagnosed?

Spirometry. Doctors use this test to diagnose and keep track of asthma. It measures how quickly you can move air in and out of your lungs and how much air you move. Peak expiratory flow (PEF). This shows how fast you can breathe out when you try your hardest. An exercise or inhalation challenge.

This test measures how quickly you can breathe after exercise or after taking a medicine. A chest X-ray, to see if another disease is causing your symptoms. Allergy tests, if your doctor thinks your symptoms may be caused by allergies. You will need routine checkups with your doctor to keep track of your asthma and decide on treatment.

What Causes Asthma?

Experts do not know exactly what causes asthma. But there are some things we do know: Asthma runs in families.

Asthma is much more common in people with allergies, though not everyone with allergies gets asthma. And not everyone with asthma has allergies. Pollution may cause asthma or make it worse.

Is This Topic For You?

This topic provides information about asthma in teens and adults.

If you are looking for information about asthma in children age 12 and younger, see the topic Asthma in Children.